Copper Toxicity: haematological and histopathological changes and prophylactic role of vitamin C in the fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792)

Nandan SB Kumar BG      

Abstract

The sub-lethal effects of copper on the humoral, enzymological and histopathological parameters in the teleost fish, Anabas testudineus and the curative capacity of vitamin C were investigated. The 96 hour LC50 value of copper was determined using Probit method and was found to be 1.74 mg/L. Fish blood from two sub-lethal concentrations, vitamin supplemented media and toxicant and vitamin free control were analyzed on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of exposure. The haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte count (RBC) and oxygen carrying capacity were reduced compared to the control values up to the day 21 followed by a significant increase (p<0.0001) in all test concentrations on the day 28. The microscopic observation of RBCs in higher concentrations and long exposure showed crenation, immature RBCs with enlarged nuclei, hypochromia and cytoplasmic vacuolation. The plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity increased (p<0.0001) progressively up to 21st day of exposure and then decreased significantly towards the control value on the 28th day. Copper exposure caused a dose and duration based increase in hepatotoxic biomarkers like glutamate oxalo transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in all the samples studied. The liver of exposed fish showed drastic architectural disruption such as hepatocyte degeneration, cell necrosis, inflammation with sinusoid dilation and thrombus formation. The present investigation clearly reveals toxicity of copper even at sub-lethal concentrations on the physiology and histology of the fish. The betterment of humoral, enzymological and histological aspects in vitamin treated fish illustrates the curative and prophylactic role of the vitamin against copper intoxication.


MS Received Date:   2014-05-13  MS Accepted Date:  2014-05-16  MS Published Date:  2014-05-16
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Nandan SB, Kumar BG. "Copper Toxicity: haematological and histopathological changes and prophylactic role of vitamin C in the fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792)" Journal of Zoology Studies 1.3 (2014): 4-13.
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Nandan, SB., Kumar, BG. (2014). Copper Toxicity: haematological and histopathological changes and prophylactic role of vitamin C in the fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792). Journal of Zoology Studies, 1(3), 4-13.
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Nandan SB, Kumar BG. Copper Toxicity: haematological and histopathological changes and prophylactic role of vitamin C in the fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792). Journal of Zoology Studies. 2014; 1(3): 4-13.
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